Empty Outline 7

Soil and Pests

Due Sunday Use Chapter 8 (Soil) and Chapter 16 (Pests) as a Reference


  • Complete using your textbook to find answers to the following questions.  Next week we will spend going over this information and answering any questions that come up.  Good luck and have fun!  Be sure to look at the grading criteria before and during your work.


Outline Grading Criteria:

  • Outline shows a conscientious effort to be complete and explain the questions posed.  Most answers are correct.


  • Student shows depth of answers by explaining, defining, and giving examples where appropriate.  If there is a sentence or less for each question, this grading criterion is not met.


Soil and Pests


1.  Explain, using the three properties of soil listed in your text, why clay has poor   water infiltration qualities and poor workability, but good nutrient holding capacity.



2. Explain, using the three properties of soil listed in your text, why silt is listed as medium in each category of table 8-2.



3.  What is the function of weathering in relation to soil fertility?



  1. If weathering is too slow to provide adequate plant nutrients, what process does?



5.  What is the relationship between water pollution and leaching?





  1. What type of soil would have the highest nutrient holding capacity, sand or loam?  Why?






  1. Why is fertilizer used in farming?  How are inorganic and organic fertilizers similar?  How are they different?





  1. Why do plants wilt?




  1. What is the relation between infiltration and water-holding capacity?





  1. What type of soil has high water-holding capacity, sand or clay?  Why?



  1. Why is it important for soil to have sufficient aeration?  How does aeration decrease?




  1. What is humus?  Why is it important to soil fertility?





  1.   What are the characteristics that a soil must have to support a crop?  Explain each briefly.





  1. Now that you know a little about soil, describe it as an ecosystem.  Include detritus, plants and detritus feeders.  Use the terms you have included in question 13.








  1. How is topsoil lost?  Is this a natural process?





  1. Compare and contrast splash, sheet, and gully erosion.






  1. Once erosion begins it is often difficult to stop.  Why?



  1. How does over cultivation lead to erosion?





  1. Why is crop rotation being abandoned?







20.  What has been the impact of overgrazing in the U.S.?







21.  What is the Taylor Grazing Act?  Why has it lead to habitat destruction of grazing lands?





22.  Why does erosion increase when deforestation occurs?  Why are rainforest more effected than other types of forests?




Chapter 16:  Pests


  1. Define the term pest.



  1. What are the benefits to using the chemical approach?



  1. What is ecological control?  Explain the basic premise. 



  1. What is IPM?


  1.  Explain the negative effects of using the chemical approach by describing the following:

a)     Resistance:  explain how this involves evolution.



b)     Resurgence



c)      Secondary outbreaks



d)     Human health effects




e)     Environmental effects:  include in your answer biological magnification.




  1. Discuss biological control of pests by describing the following:

a)     Cultural control of pests




b)     Control by natural enemies




c)      Genetic control (Control with chemical barriers, physical barriers, and sterile males)




d)     Natural chemical control