Outline 2:  Chemistry and Organic Molecules

Due Sunday by midnight

Use Chapters 2 and 5 as reference



Outline Grading Criteria


Empty Outline 2:

Chemistry and Organic Molecules


Chemistry Review:  Reference Chapter 2

Atoms:  the smallest unit of matter


Use your student CD to learn and review these concepts.  I will refer to the CD throughout the quarter. 


To install your CD, place it in your CD drive in your computer, go to my computer and then double click on the drive that you just placed the CD into.  To launch the CD the first time, you will be asked to enter your access code.  You will find the access code on the first page of your textbook ? right under the CD itself.  There are directions on how to log on to www.campbellbiology.com.  Follow those directions.


  1. Go to Chapter 2 on the student CD.  Click on activities on the left margin of the screen.  Choose Structure of the Atomic nucleus.  Complete the activity to review what you have read on atoms.
  2. Go to the next activity Electron arrangement and complete this activity.  These will help you answer these first few questions.







  1. Name and describe the three subatomic particles that makeup atoms.


Name                                      Location in atom                   Charge

















  1. Draw an atomic diagram for each atom described below (include components of the nucleus and correct number of electrons in each shell):


a)     Carbon (6 protons; 6 neutrons; 6 electrons)






b)     Hydrogen (1 proton; 1 electron)





c)      Chlorine (17 protons; 18 neutrons; 17 electrons)


  1.  Define Mass number:





  1. As you look at the periodic table of the elements what do the two numbers in each box tell you?





  1. What is an electron shell?  How many electrons are in the first shell?  Second?  Third?



  1. What if the outer shell is not full of electrons? 






Bonds between Atoms

  1. Define the term chemical bond:




  1. What is a covalent bond? 






  1. Show an electron diagram of a covalent bond between 2 hydrogen atoms. 





  1. Why would two hydrogen atoms want to form a bond with each other?  Are they stable now?  Why weren?t they stable before?


  1.   What is a double covalent bond? 





  1. Show an electron diagram of a double covalent bond between two oxygen atoms. 








  1. Why would two oxygen atoms want to form a double covalent bond? 




  1. What is the difference between a polar covalent bond and a non-polar covalent bond?






  1. Why is water (H2O) a good example of a polar covalent bond?






  1. Define a hydrogen bond.   The last acvitiy on your student CD for chapter 2 discusses hydrogen bonds.






  1. Explain/diagram how water is also a good example of a hydrogen bond.







  1. Describe the difference between an atom and an ion.






  1. Describe/define what an ionic bond is.







  1. Explain how NaCl (salt) is a good example of an ionic bond.






  1. Differentiate between an atom and a molecule.





Organic Molecules:  Reference Chapter 5


  1. What is the difference between an organic molecule and an inorganic molecule and give some example of each.



  1. What is a biological molecule?


  1.   What are the 4 major groups of biological molecules in living things?










25.  What is a polymer?  Monomer?





26.  Discuss the difference between the processes of dehydration synthesis (condensation reactions) and hydrolysis.


  1. Why are lipids water insoluble?  Explain using chemical properties of lipids.


  1. Draw the structure of the glycerol part of a lipid.  Next, add to your drawing to create a saturated fat.  Then draw an unsaturated fat.  So, what is the chemical difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?  Why would saturated fats hold more calories and therefore, be worse for you?


  1. Draw the structure of the glycerol part of a lipid again.  Now add to your drawing to create a phospholipid.  Explain, based on your drawing why the phosphate head of your phospholipids is polar.  Explain, based on your drawing why the fatty acid tails are non-polar molecules.


  1. What is the structure that is similar in all 20 amino acids (draw).  What is a functional group (side chain)?


  1. Demonstrate by using drawings how Serine would form a bond with Lysine.  What is this kind of bond called?  How does a polypeptide form?


  1. Briefly describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quartenary structure of proteins.  Why is this 3-D shape important to the functioning of proteins?


  1. What is the name for many monosaccharides linked together?


  1. What are the main polysaccharides found in plants?  What are their functions?  What are the equivalent molecules found in animals?
  2. What is the basic structure of a nucleotide? 


  1. How do nucleotides link to form nucleic acid?



  1. What are the four bases that make up DNA?